Seeing Hope, Seeing Resurrection

This powerpoint that Elizabeth prepared for Easter 2017 takes us through the period from Good Friday to the Resurrection – and offers stories of hope and transformation in today’s world. Download it here.

‘Green Communion’ Powerpoint

Prepared for the first anniversary of EcoChurch but suitable for any occasion when you want to reflect on the grandeur and beauty of God’s creation, Elizabeth’s powerpoint highlights the beauty of nature … with a focus on ‘green’ things … and a hymn of praise to God at the end.

Download it here  (5+MB)

Christian Disciplines, Climate Prayer, Extractives Transparency: 29 Jan 2017

In this week’s prayer email:

  • Christian Disciplines in Changing Times
  • Praying about the Climate
  • Transparency in Extractive Industries
  • Coming up in February


Christian Disciplines in Changing Times

If you haven’t read Corrie Ten Boom’s ‘The Hiding Place’ (in which case you are in for a treat when you do), it tells the story of the ten Boom family’s life in Haarlem in the years leading up to the Second World War, then of their hospitality to Jewish friends – and gradual involvement in the Dutch underground – after the Nazis invaded, their arrest and internment in Nazi concentration camps – where they continued with faithful lives of love and hope and experienced miracles despite the bleakest circumstances – and eventually Corrie ten Boom’s release and ministry of reconciliation and healing after the war.Many have been inspired by the family’s courageous and loving witness under the Nazis and by God’s faithfulness to them during their persecutions. But some years ago a convert to Christianity who had herself offered loving witness in the face of opposition, said what might appear a surprising thing – that what interested her was not the section of the book that dealt with the time of the Second World War, but the opening chapters, with their establishment of the family’s gentle patterns of prayer, study, hospitality, integrity, and joyful love. That, she then explained, was what was truly important – the rest of the book flowed from it.

We live in changing times. It’s not just a question of the tumultuous changes of the past few years – though their brutal conflicts, growing recognition of the issues around inequality, movements of people, natural disasters, and shifting political landscapes (from the UK to the US to the Middle East to China to India) have shaken many people’s certainties. The pace of change over the past few decades in how societies around the world, including ours, think and act, the challenges and opportunities they face; the technologies they use, the work they do or no longer do, the ways in which they do or don’t relate to each other, and the ways they and the individuals within them define themselves are massive. Some of those changes appear positive; some not. And there is more to come: buried in the recent news have been (to take some examples) stories about risks to future UK, US, and global food security from climate change, extreme inequality and capture of political processes, concerns about not only new forms of asymmetric and cyber warfare but also conventional wars in Eastern Europe and Asia, ethical issues arising from such developments as the creation of human-animal hybrid fetuses and the rise of artificial intelligence and automation (should robots have legal personhood?),  and debates about whether, in a potentially increasingly automated society, a ‘universal basic income‘ should be created, in recognition that should such a society emerge, many people could be unable to find work.

How do we respond well to present and future challenges? How do we grapple – ourselves and alongside others – with the questions around what it means to be human? What a ‘good society’ and a ‘just world’ look like? What steps we are prepared to take to care for the planet that is our common home?  How do we discern what it means to love God and neighbour here, now, today – and live that out in the choices we make daily, from what we eat to how we work to how we build relationships and where we spend our non-working time?

These are questions of discernment for each of us individually, as well as for us together in our churches at all levels. But one thing is certain. We can do nothing unless we, like the ten Boom family, acknowledge our dependence on God and ask for the grace to establish in our lives rhythms of prayer and Sabbath, study of Scripture and its interpretation, interrogation of our lives and the issues that confront us in the light of that prayer and study, joyful love, hospitality, and humble service. This may at times be painful, but it need not be overwhelming – it’s about doing ‘different’, not doing ‘more’. And it isn’t about retreat from the world’s challenges. It’s about making ourselves open to God so that we can be guided by the One who created, redeemed, loves and sustains our challenged world.

“Who among you fears the LORD and obeys the voice of his servant, who walks in darkness and has no light, yet trusts in the name of the LORD and relies upon his God?” the readings from morning prayer asked earlier this week. “He has told you, O mortal, what is good; and what does the LORD require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God?” say this week’s Revised Common Lectionary reading from the Old Testament. “Blessed are the poor in spirit … those who mourn … the meek … those who hunger and thirst for righteousness … the merciful … the pure in heart,” say the Beatitudes.

Please pray for a deepening of the spiritual life for all who seek to follow Christ – and that  Christian lives, rooted and grounded in prayer, may be a witness to all people of God’s love and mercy.

Praying about the Climate

Attached are this month’s Pray and Fast for the Climate prayer points. These cover a number of areas of concern – and of hope. There’s a beautiful prayer from the Northumbria Community, and some very encouraging news on divestment, new developments in energy storage, and ambitious carbon-cutting proposals from countries near (Scotland) and far (Costa Rica).

There’s also information on concerns in the US. As noted last week, there are worrying developments at federal level (and some more under-the-radar ones potentially on the way via Congress as well as the presidency) – but there are also encouraging developments at state level, which it’s also good to keep in prayer. In addition to the California proposals, New York State is also taking strong action, including a major commitment to offshore wind. At the federal level, we’d particularly encourage prayer for the federal government to respect and maintain the integrity of federal scientific agencies’ research, grants and data. These may not be the most exciting sounding activities – but they constitute an area where federal-level changes could have a very strong negative impact, not just for the US but globally.

If you’d like more information on this, take a look at the work of Columbia University’s Sabin Center for Climate Change Law, its faculty director Michael Gerrard, and climate journalist Andy Revkin: you can follow them and get links to their work on Twitter at @Columbiaclimate @michaelgerrard and @revkin. 

Transparency in Extractive Industries

While President Trump’s actions in the first week of his presidency have been gaining all the attention, there are some proposals expected in the US Congress which also urgently require prayer.

One of these is an attempt to use something called the Congressional Review Act to get rid of vital legislation on transparency. Over the past several years, countries around the world have been working on legislation that requires extractive industry companies to publish what they pay to governments in exchange for natural resources rights. Such reporting of payments helps people in resource-rich countries to hold their governments to account and to fight against corruption.

The US law – the bipartisan Cardin Lugar provision in the Dodd Frank Act – was actually the first of its kind, passed by Congress in 2010. It’s since been followed by similar regulations in 30 other countries, including the UK, Canada, Norway, and many members of the EU – with the result that, according to transparency coalition Publish What You Pay, such provisions apply to “80 percent of the world’s largest publicly listed oil, gas and mining companies, including state-owned companies from Russia, China and Brazil.” In the US, though, a lobbying group called the American Petroleum Institute (API), of which Exxon Mobil was a prominent member, lobbied against the bill, and then sued the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to prevent its implementation. Thanks to their opposition, the provision wasn’t implemented until June 2016.

The Congressional Review Act allows Congress to stop recent regulations by a simple majority vote. The long delays in establishing the final ‘rule’ for implementing the  Cardin-Lugar provision make it vulnerable.

If the Cardin Lugar provision is overturned, US listed companies will no longer be subject to the regulations, making transparency efforts far less effective, giving corrupt regimes an incentive to deal with US businesses over those that are more transparent, and potentially leaving the citizens of resource-rich countries with far less funds for vital services such as education, healthcare and infrastructure.

Daniel Kauffman, a leading transparency expert who heads the National Resource Governance Institute, stated: “We are deeply concerned at the attempt to gut this trailblazing U.S. law, which deters corruption and improves governance in the notoriously opaque natural resource sector. Legislators in both houses should abandon this plan immediately. Failure to do so would essentially be an endorsement of the kind of corruption and secrecy found in resource-rich dictatorships … It would make a mockery of the tough talk on fighting graft which we heard throughout the recent presidential campaign.”

Pray that transparency campaigners will be able to put their case clearly and effectively, and to mobilise a constituency for this issue at a time where there are many other concerns. Pray that a sufficient number of members of Congress will understand the damage this move could do and be willing to uphold the Cardin-Lugar provisions on principle.

Coming up in February …

1 February – Pray and Fast for the Climate

5 Feb 2017 – BMS Day of Prayer: Materials from BMS World Mission

5 Feb 2017 – 1st Anniversary of Eco-Church: A time to give thanks for God’s creation, and to commit to caring for it. Could your church join in? There are full   Materials for a ‘Green Communion’ from A Rocha, and we’ll be sending out a creative worship powerpoint on Friday.

12 Feb 2017 – Racial Justice Sunday

12 February Red Hand Day: Campaign/pray for an end to use of child soldiers. Materials from Child Soldiers International

13-19 Feb 2017 – People and Planet ‘Go Green Week’ Nat’l week of climate action for schools, colleges, universities. Info: People and Planet.

14 February (and surrounding period) – Green Hearts Campaign Campaign to protect what you love from climate change. The focus is on using a ‘green heart’ – in a Valentine, worn as a brooch, placed as a bookmark –  as a conversation starter. Could you pray in church – and perhaps do something creative with green hearts?  Resources from For the Love of

20 February – World Day of Social Justice: Info from the UN; opportunity for prayer and action on a range of social justice issues. Suggestions: Joint Public Issues Team, National Justice and Peace Network

26 Feb 2017 – Freedom Sunday: Against modern slavery – see also 25 March, 30 July, 23/24 August, 18 October. Materials: Church of England, CTE, Tearfund, Stop the Traffik

26 Feb 2017 – Church Action on Poverty Sunday: Theme: ‘Poor church, transfigured church” Materials from Church Action on Poverty

27 Feb to 12 March 2017 Fairtrade Fortnight: Materials from the Fairtrade Foundation, Traidcraft and CCOW.


Epiphany and Refugees, Upcoming Dates, Events – 8 January 2016

In this week’s prayer email:

  • Lord, you were once a refugee”
  • Coming up – Special Days in January
  • Coming up – Actions and Events

The Gospel in this week’s Revised Common Lectionary texts tells the story of the Magi’s visit to Herod, which sets the scene for the jealous king to massacre the young boys of Bethlehem as he seeks to destroy a threat to his power. The Psalm reminds us that the king whom he seeks to destroy is in fact one who will exemplify not the kind of ‘hard power’ Herod craves, but who will usher in righteousness and justice, peace and deliverance. Your Kingdom come, O Lord! ___________________________________________________________________________

Lord, you were once a refugee”

The quote above comes from a prayer released by Churches Together in Britain and Ireland at Christmas. As we recall this week the Holy Family’s flight into Egypt, we pray for those who have fled their homes in today’s world because of conflict, persecution, or conditions that make survival difficult … and we pray for political leaders – and each of us – to respond to their situations with love and wisdom

We’re aware that listing seven groups of people to pray for may feel overwhelming – but felt it important to acknowledge – if only in part – the scale of refugee needs beyond those that directly affect us and regularly make the headlines. You might wish to read about and pray for a different group each day. We’ve also included action points. Some of these involve campaigning. Many involve donating, as the number of simultaneous humanitarian crises is putting a strain on aid agency resources. Clearly no one person can give to everything, and we suspect that our readers are already giving generously – but if you can give even a little more to one of the options below, it could make a real difference.

Please pray for refugees, asylum seekers and other displaced persons:

  • in the Greek Islands, Greece, the Balkans and Hungary, especially those who are living in conditions that are unsafe. These areas have seen very cold and snowy weather, and refugees living in tents or on the streets are at risk. Pray not only for them and their health, but for steps to improve provision (there have been some improvements in Greece itself in recent weeks) and to resolve the wider EU impasse on refugee relocation that has left so many people stranded: UNHCR has noted that of the 66,400 refugees whom the EU agreed in 2015 to relocate to other EU countries within two years, by 4 January 2017 only 7,760 had left Greece or were scheduled to do so. Give thanks for all who are seeking to offer refugees hope and hospitality, including many church organisations. Pray for wisdom for local church leaders and congregations who seek to address refugees’ needs, asking God to guide them in their relationships with refugees themselves and with the host communities and politicians.Action points: could you contribute to funds for refugees in Europe? You can donate through, among others, CAFOD, Christian Aid, MSF, and USPG. (Links here and in all cases go directly to the appropriate donations page).Could you help to support refugees in the UK and/or write to your MP, asking them to ask the Government to expand the numbers of refugees the UK will accept? While accepting refugees does have resource implications, in view of the huge numbers of refugees who have found safe haven in countries with far fewer resources than ours, one cannot help but feel we could do more.
  • within Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey, as they face dangerous situations and difficult winter conditions. Give thanks for all who are showing hospitality to them and pray also for the well-being of host communities. (If you can understand French or Arabic, do watch this video about work to integrate Syrians and host communities in Lebanon – a source of encouragement!) Pray especially for churches and church organisations that are (eg this one) reaching out to show hospitality, thanking God for their work and the way that God is resourcing them materially and spiritually.Action points: could you contribute to help fund work by churches and church organisations to support refugees in the Middle East? This has the dual effect of helping to support refugees and reminding Christians in the Middle East that they do not stand alone. You can donate through, among others, All We Can, BMS World Mission, CAFOD, Christian Aid, Embrace the Middle East, International Orthodox Christian Charities*, Jesuit Refugee Service, Tearfund.
  • in Sudan, South Sudan, and the surrounding countries. Since the outbreak of conflict in December 2013, increasing numbers of South Sudanese have had to flee their homes: at present UNHCR estimates that there are almost 1.3 million refugees and asylum seekers from the country, many of them unaccompanied minors. Almost 600,000 people are estimated to have fled to Uganda, where refugee rations for those who arrived before July 2015 were halved (for lack of funds) in Autumn 2016, and over 300,000 to Ethiopia, where inter-communal tensions have risen.In addition years of conflict and economic crisis have had a huge impact on agriculture and left almost 40% of South Sudan’s population at risk of acute hunger. CMS trustee Jane Shaw writes: “Scarcity continues, and the Famine Early Warning Systems Network … warns that South Sudan will experience ‘acute food insecurity’ within the first half of 2017. This is due partly to a drop in production, partly to volatile trade conditions and partly to high prices. Low pay for many employees, including civil servants, is compounded by salaries not being paid, sometimes for months. Pray for all those experiencing hunger, especially for parents unable to feed their children.”Please pray for:
    •  peace with justice in South Sudan – and that the international community will exert effective pressure on those who are encouraging or engaging in violence
    • the safety and spiritual and material wellbeing of all who are fleeing because of violence or the inability to find adequate means to live where they are.
    • those who are working with host communities and for the host communities themselves.
    • for Christian churches as they work for peace amidst the conflict and witness  to Christ’s love through the spiritual and material care they provide
    • an end to inter-ethnic tensions in the country and in places which should be safe, such as refugee camps, and a strengthening of the effectiveness of the
      UN peacekeeping mission.
    • all who are hungry and all who are working to alleviate hunger now and for the future
    • in thankgiving for those who, like the churches and the bookseller of Malakal, are offering hope amidst the crises

Action Point: Could you donate to South Sudan appeals? You can donate via CAFOD,
Christian Aid, MSF, Tearfund , the World Food Programme, and World Vision among
others. And in a week when aid in the form of cash transfers has been much pilloried
in the popular press, it might be worth looking at this story on World Food
Program cash transfers to Sudanese refugees in Uganda and the way cash empowers
people to make choices. More broadly, it’s worth looking at how UK AID (and aid
from the US and others) is enabling people to access food, health care and other

  • in Burundi and the countries around it. According to the UN, more than 325,000 Burundians have fled since the country’s political crisis began about two years ago: about half of these have gone to Tanzania, with almost 90,000 people in Rwanda and substantial numbers also in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Some feel that the political crisis is increasingly taking on ethnic overtones, which is a cause for further concern.UNICEF notes: “While the socio-political situation in Burundi remains tense and unpredictable, cross-border influxes are expected to continue: the Burundian refugee population in the region is projected to exceed 524,000 by the end of 2017. Although governments and partner assistance continues, transit facilities and camps are overcrowded. Children are bearing the brunt of the crisis, with overstretched health and nutrition facilities and water and sanitation shortages increasing the risk of disease outbreaks. Protection concerns such as sexual and gender-based violence are significant. Inadequate numbers of schools and limited education supplies are making it difficult for children to access quality education.”Adapting the words of an Anglican prayer for Burundi:
    • for all who are grieving or suffering trauma because of the violence, we ask for healing.
    • “For all people who are living in fear and dread, afraid of the unknown and the uncertain, we ask for hope.”
    •  following the killing of a government minister at Christmas, we pray that this act of violence does not lead to more intense violence
    • “For those fleeing in Burundi or abroad, we pray for safety, freedom from disease and famine and the security that they may return home.” We pray also for all who are working to provide refugees with security and access to goods and services that supply their needs.
    • “For the surrounding countries [ we pray] that they may remain at peace, act justly and broker a just settlement” and that the communities within which refugees are present may be welcoming and may themselves find flourishing.
    • “For those seeking the way of violence, [we pray] that they would instead seek reconciliation between all parties.”
    • For the work that churches and others are doing to meet people’s spiritual and material needs and to counter violence (including gender-based violence), we give thanks to God.
  • in Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin. Overall there are about 2.2 million displaced people in the region. The largest number come from Nigeria: because of conflict with Boko Haram, there are an estimated 1.77 million displaced people in Nigeria and over 200,000 Nigerian refugees  in other countries in the area.  Many of the host countries for Nigerian refugees – places like Chad, Cameroon (which also hosts refugees from the Central African Republic) and Niger – are themselves very poor,  but communities are doing their best to support people fleeing violence, using their own resources and/or with support from the international community.A primary concern in the area is hunger: it is hard to find out what is happening in some areas that are not readily accessible, but it seems likely that there has been and may still be a full-blown famine in at least part of Northeast Nigeria, and many parts of the area are suffering a food crisis or food emergency. One estimate is that more than half of under fives in parts of Northeast Nigeria are suffering from malnutrition.There is some good news: while the needs are huge, work by its humanitarian partners, including the Nigerian government, has recently enabled the World Food Programme to scale up its work in the region. In December alone, it assisted more than one million people, and it hopes to reach 2.5 million by April of this year.

    Please pray:

    • for an end to Boko Haram’s campaign of violence – that God will turn towards peace the hearts of those who encourage and engage in violence
    • for all who have suffered because of the violence, that they will know God’s healing presence and receive comfort
    • for all who are displaced and all who are hungry, that they will have their material and spiritual needs met
    • for the government of Nigeria, regional governments, UN agencies and civil society groups who are working to alleviate poverty in the region
    • for the churches in the area, asking God to give them courage and strength to stand firm in difficult times and to show the love of God through their words and actions
    • for host communities, that they too may find the means they need to flourish

Action Points: Donate to the World Food Programme’s general emergencies fund.

  • among minorities in Myanmar and those who have fled to other countries. We wrote recently about the violence against the Rohingya in Myanmar and the way the  government often blocks aid from reaching them. This collection of stories gives a chance to hear from Rohingya who have sought asylum in India: they tell the stories of why they left their homes, how they made their way to India and what they are doing there. Many people from other religious and ethnic minorities in Myanmar, including the largely Christian Kachin, have also faced oppression. Some are in camps for displaced people; some have fled to other countries.One of the difficulties that Myanmar’s refugees in Thailand, in particular, face is that they are completely dependent on external sources to meet their basic needs. With broad recognition of Myanmar’s new government, though, it’s getting harder to find funds for their support – despite the fact that Myanmar’s minorities continue to have very real grounds for fearing persecution.Please pray:
    • that the government of Myanmar will recognise the right of all communities, whatever their ethnic background, to live in peace
    • that the international community will hold the government of Myanmar accountable for violations of human rights and will avoid doing anything which results in ill treatment of minorities or seizure of their assets **
    • for safety for refugees from Myanmar and the families they have left behind.
    • that those who are ‘in limbo’ in refugee camps or settlements will be given the freedom and the means to make new lives for themselves and their families
    • for healing and comfort for those who have suffered violence.

Action Points: Could you join Christian Solidarity Worldwide in demanding an end to
blocks on aid to the Rohingya minorities in Myanmar? Could you donate to MSF‘s
work with minority and underserved communities in Myanmar?

  • facing return to potentially unsafe situations in Afghanistan and Somalia. According to the 2015 UNHCR review, Afghanistan and Somalia were 2nd and 3rd in the lists of countries of origin for refugees: as of that point, there were 2.7 million refugees from Afghanistan and 1.1 million from Somalia.In recent months, there has been increasing concern about the number of Afghan and Somali refugees who are being returned to potentially unsafe situations. European countries, including the UK, have deemed Afghanistan safe enough to accept deportations, and, as part of their negotiations before the latest aid conference, have signed an agreement with Afghanistan that allows them to deport an unlimited number of asylum seekers, whom Afghanistan must accept. Pakistan has also deported Afghans who were illegally in the country. While some of the other returns are theoretically ‘voluntary’ they are often the result of pressure: Afghan refugees in Pakistan have experienced harrassment and been denied access to services; Kenya has threatened to close the huge Dadaab refugee camp, leaving residents afraid that if they do not take the ‘voluntary’ UN repatriation package, they will be forcibly repatriated at a later date. The UN and human rights agencies have expressed grave worries about the situation of returnees in Afghanistan in particular, as has the Afghan government.Please pray for people facing returns to unsafe situations. Pray that they will find safety and security amidst the danger and will be able to protect those who depend on them. Pray for an end to the deportation of vulnerable people into situations of danger, and especially the deportation of those who have spent their childhood outside their countries of origin, only to be returned to a country they no longer know when they reach adulthood. 

*IOCC does not specify areas where donations will be used, but does a significant portion of its work in the Middle East.

Coming up – Special Days in January
15 Jan 2017 Peace Sunday
Theme:’Nonviolence: A Style of Politics for Peace’ Materials for Peace Sunday from Pax Christi. Some further peace-related materials: Anglican Pacifist FellowshipBaptist Peace Fellowship, Catholic Worker Movement, Christian International Peace ServiceFellowship of Reconciliation, Mennonite Peace & Justice Support NetworkMethodist Peace Fellowship, National Justice and Peace Network, Orthodox Peace Fellowship, Oxpeace, Quakers in Britain.

17 to 24 Jan 2017 – Octave of Prayer for Christian Unity
Int’l theme: ‘Reconciliation – the love of Christ compels us’ Materials: World Council of Churches. UK theme: ‘Crossing Barriers’ Materials: CTBI

22 Jan 2017 – Homeless Sunday

Resources for worship and prayer cards

25 January – Conversion of St Paul

On the 25th of January, some churches remember Saul/Paul’s conversion on the road to Damascus. Could you use the day as an opportunity to pray for God to turn the hearts of those who currently persecute Christians for their faith? To pray for Syria & the Syrian church?

27 January – Holocaust Memorial Day

Theme: ‘How can life go on?’ Materials from CTBI/CCJ and Holocaust Memorial Day Trust

29 Jan 2017 – World Leprosy Day

Also observed on 30 January. UK focus is on rural India. Materials from Leprosy Mission (UK).

Coming up – Actions and Events

Our new website’s events calendar has a selection of local and national events of interest: take a look! And please do send us events for inclusion.

16 January

There are many ‘hot topics’ in Fairtrade at present – things like the relationship between Fairtrade and corporate ‘own-label’ systems, market access for farmers, and the role of campaigners in the Fairtrade movement. You’re invited to discuss these with the CEO of the Fairtrade Foundation, Mike Gidney, who will be coming to Oxford on the 16th. Long Room, Town Hall, 6:00 to 8:00 pm (incorporating a brief Oxford Fair Trade Coalition AGM, talk, discussion session and refreshments). Free. All welcome.

5 February

It’s the 1st anniversary of the Eco-Church programme, which helps churches see why care for creation is part of our discipleship, evaluate what they’re already doing to care for creation, and take the next steps. Many churches will be celebrating with a ‘Green Communion’. Could you do so – and, if you’re not already involved with the Eco-Church programme, get your church to take the starting survey? Green Communion materials. Eco-Church survey.

14 February (and surrounding week)

The ‘For the love of’ campaign was started by a coalition of agencies and groups to help us talk about climate change in terms of protecting the things we love. This year, as last year, they’re asking us to make, wear and/or share green hearts around Valentine’s Day as a way of starting climate conversations. There’s a toolkit with lots of suggestions. Could any group you’re part of have a heart-making session?


Photo ID 482888. 25/08/2011. Dollo Ado, Ethiopia. UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe.

The Earth is the Lord’s

A beautiful powerpoint by Elizabeth Perry combining Scripture and striking images that showcase the glory of God’s creation.

Download it here

Canticle of the Creatures Poster

This A3 poster combines the words of St Francis of Assisi’s famous ‘Canticle of the Creatures’ with photographs by Elizabeth Perry. It’s ideal for personal meditation or to have up in a prayer section of your church.

Copies are available from us in return for a donation to cover the costs of production, postage and packing.